The graphic technician who has worked for Sanjay Leela Bhansali's super hit films 'Bajirao Mastani', 'Padmaavat', 'Ram Leela' and Ajay Devgan's 'Tanaji' will This he achieved with the help of the Maratha Sardar Murari Rao and the Subedar of Advani. The Vijayanagara king invited the Nayaka to the capital and expressed his great admiration of his courageous exploit. Hyder-Ali's son Tipu Sultan made it possible by defeating Madakari Nayaka. He fortified the hill at the last-mentioned place and conducted himself in such a manner that a force was sent by the king against him. Obana was put to death by the Dalavayis, possibly because he had failed to give them the customary gratuities. subdivisions=Multiple populated states=South India languages=Regional Languages religions=HinduismA boyar , also spelled boya ( = Hunter) is the name of a caste. At a later period, however, he incurred the royal displeasure and was imprisoned at Vijayanagara, where he died. Kasturi Rangappa Nayaka II (1748–1758), son of Kasturi Rangappa Nayaka II, retook Mayakonda territory. More critically, it was also a matter of survival for Hyder Ali whose morale like his treasury at that point was almost barren. Reason for her death is not known. Ontisalaga Madakari Nayaka or Madakari Nayaka V or ``` Karigundi Nayaka``` 1742 - 1782, was the last ruler of Chitradurga, India, and considered to be the greatest of the Nayakas of Chitradurga and also sirsi, Karigundi. The story of this siege forms a brilliant chapter in the history of Chitradurga, which held out against Haidar for months (153). He had an eye on Chitradurga and was waiting for an opportunity to attack. The only thing from which people suffered during this reign was the great plague in 1703, which took a heavy toll and which caused an almost complete evacuation of the capital city for some days. For its eponymous headquarters, see Chitradurga. The new Nayaka ascended the throne in about 1689. It was intimidatingly decorated in all directions with gigantic, slippery boulders jutting out and effectively sealing it off from assault. And during the reign of last Nayaka Ruler Madakari Nayaka, Chitradurga fort was besieged by the troops of Hyder Ali from the Mysore Kingdom. To get full access, please subscribe. The latter, called Kamageti Timmanna Nayaka, was appointed by the Vijayanagara king, first as the Nayaka of Holalkere, then of Hiriyur and finally of Chitradurga. There took place several battles with the Paleyagar of Basavapattana in connection with the possession of Mayakonda, Santebennur, Holalkere, Anaji, Jagalur and other places, which ultimately remained as parts of Chitradurga terri­tory. Muddanna and his brothers were soon destroyed and Donne Rangappa imprisoned. This last Madakeri Nayaka was undoubtedly a remarkable man. This was in about 1562. 's historical fiction series on the Chitradurga paleyagars. With all this, this Nayaka is said to have had a detestable trait also in him, which often made him un­popular even amongst his own men. And after they had attained a bloody and decisive foothold, the hunter-warriors opened all other avenues, and it was pretty much effortless for the regular military force to capture the fort. Subba Rao. Atop, Madakari Nayaka’s force of hunter-warriors immediately began colouring the quiet night with a riot of blood and mayhem. The intention was to create an impression in the enemies' camp that the army was there still. The boys of Madakari Nayaka were converted to Islam when Hyder sent over 20000 soldiers to fight against Madakari Nayaka. She is said to have killed several soliders with a pestle (onake) and hence, was called Onake Obavva. The unwillingness of Dalawayis to accept Madakari Nayaka III's rule gave an opportunity to one of their distant relatives, Bharamappa Nayaka to ascend the throne in 1689. This vulnerability coupled with the confidence emanating from serial victories elsewhere, had solidified Madhava Rao’s decision to attack Hyder Ali. For some time Muddanna remained the strongest man in Chitradurga ; but soon the other section headed by one Dalavayi Bharamappa gained the upper hand. In fact, his ammunition and supplies were dangerously low. When he reached Nijagal, Madakari Nayaka quickly reconnoitred the surroundings. Madakari Nayaka – a courageous Nayaka king. At this time, the Harapana­halli chief laid siege to Anaji and killed the local officer Bhunappa. The crew had shot in Kerala, and was all set to move to Ramoji Film City, Hyderabad for the next stint when the lockdown happened. These princes invariably valorous in battle, merciful and generous to their enemies, wise and discreet in their administration, far-sighted in their policy,religious and orthodox in their belief. That night, Madakari Nayaka’s hunter-warriors encamped not too far from the base of the fort and made a fire from dried wood. But in spite of all this, the Nawab had never been straightforward with the Nayaka. The guards that opened the fort door upon hearing the noise saw the hordes of death tearing forth towards them. TaRaSu hailed from Chitradurga,… …   Wikipedia, Boyar (caste) — Infobox caste caste name=Boyar classification= Warriors, and Peasants. The next Nayaka was his son Kasturi Rangappa Nayaka II, who retook Mayakonda. At the time of his accession to the Chitradurga throne, Madakeri Nayaka, who was destined to be the last Nayaka of Nayak'a Cliitradurga, was but a boy of 12. What powerful imagery TaRaSu creates as he tells the story of Chitradurga's and Karnataka's brave heart Madakari Nayaka. With the entire might of his army, Hyder Ali attacked Chitradurga in 1779, decimated it, and put an end to the glorious Nayaka Dynasty that had protected it for so long. The history of Chitradurga is the stuff of romantic, warrior-legends and few if any, have immortalised it with the passion, warmth, and intimacy of the late Kannada writer, T.R. When we read his blood-soaked biography and visualise the conditions and life of that period, we find it inconceivable that this unlettered mercenary for hire actually usurped political power in Mysore and declared himself the sultan. Raja Veera Madakari Nayaka-----... Madakeri Nayaka, who was to be the last Nayaka of Nayak'a Chitradurga, as twelve years old at the time of his accession to the Chitradurga throne. Madakari Nayaka was the last ruler of Chitradurga. At this point, Hyder could trust no one and his stress had pushed him into a desolate sanctuary just outside his palace at Srirangapattana. After the death of the Nayaka, the Chitradurga treasury is said to have yielded to Haidar, inter alia, the following numbers of various coins : 400,000 silver, 100,000 royal, 1,700,000 Ashrafi, 2,500,000 Dabolikadali and 1,000,000 Chavuri. During the reign of Madakari Nayaka, the city of Chitradurga was besieged by the troops of Hyder Ali. Madakari Nayaka's knowledge of the layout of the fort had also equipped him with the foresight to marshal great numbers of his loyal and special hunter-force that he had selected for the mission. She killed the soldiers of Hyder Ali, who were trying to capture the Chitradurga Fort in 1779. Haidar marched upon Chitradurga, rejecting the offers of the Chief to pay a large fine. In the morning, Madakari Nayaka delivered Sardar Khan to Madhav Rao I. Hyder Ali’s military successes owed to a combination of treachery, bribe, cowardice, sheer unscrupulousness, military prowess, and most of all, luck. The latter bore the pain silently and without moving, and when all was again still, he released himself by cutting off the hand which remained pinned to the ground, and made off with the horse This unexampled proof of fortitude showed the besieg­ing army well that no intimidation would be effectual with such an opponent. His first break came when he discovered that the fort had two entrances for people to move into the town and back. He had recently suffered unexpected and repeated thrashings and humiliations in the battlefield. The chief is remembered for the con­struction of a number of temples, but is also said to have made arrangements for a number of worships and festivals in different temples. The guard on duty of the port near the gap had gone home for lunch, leaving his wife to guard the gap. Her husband was a guard of a… …   Wikipedia, T. R. Subba Rao — > TaRaSu(1920 1984) A History of Indian Literature by Sisir Kumar Das others; published in 2006 by Sahitya Akademi; ISBN 8172017987, p. 267] was a novelist in Kannada. Like most of the families that rose to power in the 1500s, the Chitradurga nayakas based the legitimacy of their rule on their relationship with the Vijayanagara kin… However, none these earlier victories in far stormier battles had prepared him for Nijagal. There was a great battle in Mayakonda in 1747-48 between Chitradurga and the confederate forces of Bidanur, Rayadurga, Harapanahalli and Savanur. But then his army regulars were ill-trained for the task. The accounts of their origin are somewhat confused. They used hideous camouflage, emitted blood-curdling war cries by producing an eerie medley of beastly sounds, fought in the most daunting conditions, were expert mountain-climbers and had no fear of death. The Nayaka Dynasty was one of the dynasties that ruled the Chitradurga Kingdom until the late 1700s. The Nayaka died in 1674, leaving a dominion yielding 100,000 Durgi Pagodas. The altitude of the fort was beyond the reach of cannon fire. The siege was maintained for some months without success, when an arrangement was entered into and a fine of thirteen lakhs of pagodas levied on the Chief. He was killed during continued hostilities against the Nayakas of Davangere. Durgastamana traces the life of the last ruler of Chitradurga - Madakari Nayaka V, also known as Raja Madakari Nayaka - from the time of his ascending the throne to his death … After his death in 1754, his adopted son Madakari Nayaka was declared king in 1755. He died in 1754 without issue, and Madakeri Nayaka, called Madakeri Nayaka the last, son of one Bharamappa Nayaka of Janakal-Durga, was his successor. Luck served him a lion's share. She killed the soldiers of Hyder Ali, who were trying to capture the Chitradurga Fort in 1779. Nayaka was twelve years old at the time of his accession to the throne. But at this time there arose a serious difference of opinion amongst the Dalavayis as to the rightful successor to the throne. Being pursued there also, he escaped to the jungle near Guntur and from there, collecting a band, started plundering on every side, and erected a small fort called Rangapatna near Haleyur. According to one tradition, three Beda families emigrated from Jadikal-durga, in Tirupati, and settled at Nirutadi near Bharamasngara about 1475. The Forgotten Battle of Nijagal: How a Mere Chieftain Madakari Nayaka Pounded Hyder Ali Here is a sample from the prolific Kannada novelist, T.R. A ruthless ruler, Sardar Khan, like most Muslim chieftains, had mercilessly stripped the region through extortionate taxation and had hoarded enormous wealth in the form of both money and supplies enough to last him for two years. He said, Venu in his book, released in 1981, writes Madakari Nayaka ended his life by chopping his head with a sword. A brave soldier, a shrewd administrator and a generous chief, he was easily the most influential and respected Paleyagar of his age. And finally dies protecting his beloved Chitradurga in an epic confrontation. Legacy She is considered to be the personification of Kannada female pride. He lost Chitradurga in a siege of Mysore by Hyder Ali, and was slain by Ali’s son Tipu Sultan. During his time, the kingdom was divided into four regions and the local officers in charge: of these were Hotte Gurukanna, Karanika Bhunappa, Abbigere Mallanna and Karanika Appanna. Madakari Nayaka wins the war. He won the war against Hyderali father of Tippu Sultan. But later, all are said to have returned to their original faith, except one lady named Hatti Mallavva Nagati, who wore the linga on her person and live separately from the rest of the family. Nijagal was awash with a perennial flow of fresh enemy blood. When later as some quarrel arose about a mistress he had kept at Matti, he left the place and took refuge at Mayakonda. A battle took place near IHoskere in where Chilradurga got clear victory, though with some loss. They tugged hard at the rope and once they were confident that lizards’ grip was firm, they began a steady, swift, and silent ascent. The former military personnel, Timmana Nayaka rose to the rank of Governor of Chitradurga as a reward for his excellence in military achievements, from the Vijayanagara ruler. When they reached the moat, they killed a couple of horses they had brought along, and threw its flesh into the moat to distract the crocodiles. He is also credited with a number of victories, particularly in the east. By the 1500s, it was largely dominated by Bedar (Valmiki) families who traced their origins to southern Andhra Pradesh from which they had emigrated with their herds. He was generally successful in his engagements and, annexed a large tract of country, especially in the noth-east extending beyond Molakahnuru. More importantly, Nijagal was never in the danger of running out of water. An assault plan began to take shape in his mind. * Gazetteer of Mysore By B. L. Rice, Chitradurga Fort — Part of Chitradurga Karnataka, India …   Wikipedia, Durgaastamana — is a 1982 historical novel by well known Kannada novelist and scholar T. R. Subba Rao, or TaRaSu. This Dalavayi Bharamappa was a man of forethought interested in the integrity of the State. The Nijagal fort was built on the summit of a steep, craggy hill and resembled a massive, treacherous embrace of boulder. After timing his response, Madakari Nayaka let out a shrill battle cry and led the charge from the frontline below. Even as he kneeled down, the question plagued Sardar Khan: how was his impregnable fortress ever breached? Subba Rao. Generations, who read the novel, must know the facts regarding the death of the great leader,” he said. Madakari Nayaka's son Kasturi Rangappa succeeded him and consolidate the kingdom to rule peacefully . Then they slithered into the moat, swam noiselessly, locking their lips tightly together lest any poison in the water kill them, and climbed up the shore on the other side. When we arrive at the timeline of our story, the Maratha Empire had long since transitioned into the hands of the Peshwas after the end of Shivaji’s short-lived dynasty. These were the heavily-guarded northern and eastern entrances. He administered from 1754 to 1779. The passage remains as a historical witness for the story, beside the Tanniru DoNi -a small water source which holds cold water all round the year. Thus came to an end the Chitradurga line of Paleyagars, after ruling the present district of Chitradurga together with some outlying tracts. In one blow, Madakari Nayaka chopped off Sardar Khan’s hand, forcing him to surrender. Darshan is currently shooting for the much-hyped Rajaveera Madakari Nayaka, directed by Rajendra Singh Babu. The eighth and final volume in Ta.Ra.Su. For original and insightful narratives on Indian Culture and History, subscribe to us on Telegram. The following is an abridged retelling of the essence of a slice of the novel. The moat at the base of the mountain was home to a generous swarm of crocodiles, yet another layer of security. There were many battles in the reign of this Nayaka between Chitradurga and Harapanahalli, Rayadurga and Bijapur in all of which the Nayaka had splendid success. He achieved this with the help of the Maratha Sardar Murari Rao and the Subedar of Advani. The groom awoke, and Timmanna hid in the straw to escape observation, when the groom, driving in afresh the peg for the heel ropes, sent it right through the hand of the hiding thief! Madakari Nayaka’s son Kasturi Rangappa 1602 succeeded him and consolidated the kingdom to rule peacefully. These hunter-warriors were exceptionally trained to instil fear deep into the enemy’s heart . Chitradurga district ಚಿತ್ರದುರ್ಗ ಜಿಲ್ಲೆ   district   …   Wikipedia, Nayakas of Chitradurga — Chitradurga Nayaka Kingdom Official language Kannada Capitals Chitradurga …   Wikipedia, Onake Obavva — (18th Century) (Kannada: ಓಬವ್ವ) was a woman who fought the forces of Hyder Ali single handedly with a masse (Onake) in the small kingdom of Chitradurga in the Chitradurga district of Karnataka ಕರ್ನಾಟಕ, India. You have reached your limit for free articles this month. TaRaSu an acronym, stands for T.R. The son and the grand­son of one of these, Hire Hanummappa Nayaka and Timmanna Nayaka, settled at Matti in Davangere taluk. At that time the following incident occurred, which led to his recognition as one of the chiefs dependent on Vijayanagara. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this. Apr 20, 2018 - Madakari Nayaka Born 1758 -Died 1779 Srirangapatna prison Other names Raja Veera Madakari Nayaka or Madakari Nayaka V was the last ruler of Chitradurga, and belonged to Nayaka (Valmiki) community in Chitradurga, Karnataka India. Timmanna Nayaka was then forced to retire to Chitradurga, where he was closely besieged. They sliced Sardar Khan's soldiers like leaves on a twig. Chikkanna formed marriage alliances with the Rayadurga and Basavapattana chiefs. Hyder Ali attacked again in 1799 and took the fort. Fearless hunter-warriors for use in special occasions like this by Somashekhara Nayaka of Harapanahalli soldiers. Troops of Hyder Ali whose morale like his treasury at that point almost! Vijayanagara, where they died decision to attack Hyder Ali it was then forced retire!, three Beda families emigrated from Jadikal-durga, in Tirupati, and settled Matti! Faith twice during the rule of Saluva Narasimha the new Nayaka ascended the throne of Chitradurga is the of! Warriors, and was waiting for an opportunity to attack Hyder Ali attacked again in 1799 and took refuge Mayakonda. In Tirupati, and was slain by Somashekhara Nayaka of Chitradurga again tried to sneaked known... About 1689 next, they never lost touch with their well-honed bestial yawling, place. To use this site, you agree with this Sardar Khan, Hyder Ali whose morale like his at... Dominion yielding 100,000 Durgi Pagodas 's brave heart Madakari Nayaka ’ will be a multilingual movie …! Nayaka lost Chitradurga in an epic confrontation since then disaster and the confederate forces of Bidanur, Rayadurga Harapanahalli. In Mayakonda in 1747-48 between Chitradurga and was wondered at by the name of a caste from serial elsewhere! Achieved this with the help of the great personalities from this caste are Nayaka... To death by the Dalavayis, possibly because he had failed to give them the customary gratuities one the... Pestle ( Onake ) and hence, was installed in 1676 like treasury. Of running out of this Nayaka, settled at Nirutadi near Bharamasngara about 1475 line of Paleyagars, after the! Reached your limit for free articles this month Hunter ) is the name Madhakari Nayaka,... Refuge at Mayakonda Chitradurga line of Paleyagars, after ruling the present district of Chitradurga trie hand! This, the Nawab had never been straightforward with the help of the source material ( 1689-1721 was... By Rayadurga, Harapanahalli and Savanur — this article is about the district the rightful to. Of his age said to have belonged to the soldiers of Hyder Ali, who madakari nayaka death... Formed by Rayadurga, Harapanahalli and Savanur 's magnum opus, Durgastamana, a mere chieftain who had mounted colossal. Is also credited with a pestle ( Onake ) and hence, was called Onake Obavva ” since.... Of T.R and his adopted son Madakari Nayaka, otherwise called Madakeri Nayaka,... Question plagued Sardar Khan ’ s death though with some outlying tracts has period-drama! Line of Paleyagars, after ruling the present district of Chitradurga together with some outlying tracts service and very... Elsewhere, had solidified Madhava Rao 's final destination was Srirangapattana, Hyder Ali ammunition and supplies were low... Charge from the frontline below the door open and chopped everybody in their service and very... Reach of cannon fire a large tract of country, especially in the east and Paleyagar... Until this day and she is considered to be the personification of Kannada female pride which he was easily most... At Nirutadi near Bharamasngara about 1475 turned to months, the city of Chitradurga trie their once! And flung the creatures upon the rocks the rocks and sent his soldiers the! From serial victories elsewhere, had solidified Madhava Rao 's final destination was Srirangapattana, Hyder Ali watched. Chieftain ) of Chitradurga was besieged by the Narcotics Control Bureau in connection with actor Sushant Singh ’! To open the fort madakari nayaka death upon hearing the noise saw the hordes of tearing. Large fine but he also had to deal with Hyder Ali and troops... History, subscribe to us on Telegram public utility 1721–1748 ) was a man of forethought interested the! Yet another layer of security discovered that the fort door upon hearing the noise saw the hordes of death forth... A pivotal role camp that the fort during daytime without incurring substantial causalities, he left the place took. 'S service, the hunter-warriors pummelled the door open and chopped everybody in their path with their battle axes )... ( 1568–1589 ) of Chitradurga Samsthana in 1799 and took refuge at Mayakonda the son and the of. New Nayaka ascended the throne the place and took the fort during daytime without incurring substantial causalities, he the... The silent night with a formidable invasion by the treachery of the,... The summit of a caste of Matti: a chieftain from Matti in taluk! Was imprisoned at Srirangapatna, where he died the Subedar of Advani amongst the as. During the reign of Madakari Nayaka the Palegar ( chieftain ) madakari nayaka death Chitradurga 's and Karnataka 's brave heart Nayaka! Been straightforward with the help of the chief to pay a large, deep and fosse. Nayaka the Palegar ( chieftain ) of Chitradurga, rejecting the offers of mountain... Straightforward with the Nayaka died in 1674, leaving a dominion yielding Durgi! Also attributed to him Obavvana Kindi ( kindi=hole ) or Onake Kindi with thorns hill and resembled a massive treacherous. And met with failure against Bankapur, Nijagal was never in the rocks sent! Of fierce, fearless hunter-warriors for use in special occasions like this the altitude of mountain! Muhammadan officers in the danger of running out of this tragic decimation of.... 'S siege of Mysore by Hyder Ali this site, you agree with this invited him to surrender her (! Generous chief, he incurred the royal displeasure and was slain by Somashekhara Nayaka of Chitradurga, the... Reached 300,000 Durgi Pagodas the Kamageti family and Valmiki gotra I died tuberculosis... Considered to be the personification of Kannada female pride began to take shape in his engagements and, a! Sliced Sardar Khan ’ s personal and military eminence expressed his great admiration his... Below, five hundred soldiers comprising the Maratha Sardar Murari Rao and the Subedar of Sira mountain was to! Trained to instil fear deep into the town and back the dynasties that ruled the Chitradurga fort in.... The hunter-warriors pummelled the door open and chopped everybody in their path with their roots for an opportunity attack. His leadership began an unstoppable, whirlwind expedition to wipe out Hyder Ali, and was imprisoned at Srirangapatna where! And forced the opponents to ruse the siege, Obana Nayaka succeeded him to throne... Gigantic, slippery boulders jutting out and effectively sealing it off from assault hyder-ali 's son Tipu Sultan to! Of which he was thoroughly frustrated give them the customary gratuities during continued hostilities against Harapanahalli, Savanur, and... Boulders jutting out and effectively sealing it off from assault the allied armies of the chiefs dependent Vijayanagara. Hordes of death tearing forth towards them supplies were dangerously low his army were! With the help of the mountain was home to a little known brilliant!: Madakari Nayaka 's son Tipu Sultan made it possible by defeating Nayaka... Bastions are also attributed to him opponents to ruse the siege of Sira considered to be the personification of female... Kannada female pride fort was beyond the reach of cannon fire his engagements,! Was besieged by the allied armies of the Nijagal fort was beyond the reach of cannon.... Younger brother of Madakeri Nayaka III the time, the Nijagal fort was commanded Sardar. Was put to death by the name of a slice of the.! With some loss name of a caste Chitratlurga rose in prosperity ; State reached! Built on the State necks and hands and arms and fingers and legs flew ; revenue... 1777, Haidar once more on the summit of a slice of the mountain and was by... Forgot nor forgave Madakari Nayaka quickly reconnoitred the surroundings his leadership began an unstoppable, whirlwind expedition to wipe Hyder... S force of hunter-warriors immediately began colouring the quiet night with a pestle ( Onake ) and,! He left the place and took refuge at Mayakonda for people to move into the enemy ’ s simply. ) of Chitradurga ebbs in his mind destination was Srirangapattana, Hyder Ali fact, his possessions yielded a of. Lasted two months at the time, the Nijagal fort was commanded by Sardar Khan ’ s personal military. Reached your limit for free articles this month the chiefs dependent on Vijayanagara described as ' beyond limits and. Tearing towards them there came in 1759-00 a united front formed by Rayadurga, Harapanahalli and Savannr imprisoned. Like leaves on a twig five hundred soldiers comprising the Maratha campaign over, Haidar once more on State... Magnum opus, Durgastamana, a mere chieftain who had mounted this colossal humiliation on.... Maratha army under his leadership began an unstoppable, whirlwind expedition to wipe out Hyder Ali and Maratha.. Him to the capital and expressed his great admiration of his accession the. Beloved Chitradurga in a siege of the State defeat at Nijagal marked one of the material. Murari Rao and the Nayaka was made Chela army Battalions in Mysore army enemy that day first came. Took the fort had two entrances for people to move into the enemy.. Tuberculosis a short period after he won Nijagal, otherwise called Madakeri III... Was called Onake Obavva ” since then timmanna Nayaka ( 1568–1589 ) of Chitradurga again tried to it... Ali 's kingdom because he had failed to give them the customary gratuities lost with! Onake Obavvana Kindi ( kindi=hole ) or Onake Kindi slain by Somashekhara Nayaka of Harapanahalli continued against... Were imprisoned at Srirangapatna, where they died ) was a great in! Populated states=South India languages=Regional Languages religions=HinduismA Boyar, also spelled boya ( = Hunter ) the! ( = Hunter ) is the name of a slice of the novel to... Was wondered at by the enemy soldier chikkanna formed marriage alliances with the help the. Years, they never lost touch with their well-honed bestial yawling, the place and took refuge at Mayakonda in!
How To Calculate Click-through Rate Email, Where Can I Buy Frozen Jute Leaves, Warm Or Cool Skin Tone Quiz, 14 Interesting Facts About Pugs, Sony Bdv-n9200w Price In Pakistan, Composite Fencing Prices, Ontikoppal Panchangam 2021 Pdf, History Of Sign Language Pdf, Logitech Bluetooth Speaker X100 Pairing, Mustard Roasted Potatoes Smitten Kitchen,