[84], Latvia has over 12,500 rivers, which stretch for 38,000 km (24,000 mi). Latvia's defence concept is based upon the Swedish-Finnish model of a rapid response force composed of a mobilisation base and a small group of career professionals. [118], Latvia participates in the Northern Dimension and Baltic Sea Region Programme, European Union initiatives to foster cross-border co-operation in the Baltic Sea region and Northern Europe. The coldest season / winter is in the months of January, February and December. Spring and autumn bring fairly mild weather. The ancient tribes of the Couronians, Semigallians, Selonians, Livs, and northern Latgallians assimilated to form the Latvian people, speaking one Latvian language. [citation needed], Foreign investment in Latvia is still modest compared with the levels in north-central Europe. In the winter season the temperature in the daytime varies between –1C to - 5C. In the following days of the week the temperature will reach 0.. +5 degrees °C, on the coast up to +7 °C, and only a few nights will it fall below zero in Vidzeme and Latgale. Maximum daytime temperature: 0 degrees Celsius; Minimum nighttime temperature: -2 degrees Celsius. [60] Elections were held with single pro-Soviet candidates listed for many positions. In formal divisions, Riga region, which includes the capital and parts of other regions that have a strong relationship with the capital, is also often included in regional divisions; e.g., there are five planning regions of Latvia (Latvian: plānošanas reģioni), which were created in 2009 to promote balanced development of all regions. Latvian food is generally quite fatty, and uses few spices. [100] In 2016 Latvia used 6.4 global hectares of biocapacity per person - their ecological footprint of consumption. [113] Joint Nordic-Baltic co-operation initiatives include the education programme NordPlus[114] and mobility programmes for public administration,[115] business and industry[116] and culture. The secretariat of the Northern Dimension Partnership on Culture (NDPC) will be located in Riga. On occasions, especially in 1944, opposing Latvian troops faced each other in battle.[56]:299. Russification began in Latgale after the Polish led the January Uprising in 1863: this spread to the rest of what is now Latvia by the 1880s. Russian, which was widely spoken during the Soviet period, is still the most widely used minority language by far (in 2011, 34% spoke it at home, including people who were not ethnically Russian). January is the coldest month with daytime temperatures usually around -5°C, but in some cases winter months can be quite colder with temperatures far below zero, about -20°C or lower and strong, cold northeasterly winds. The average climate figure for Latvia is an 6,9. Chance of snow 50%. The war of independence that followed was part of a general chaotic period of civil and new border wars in Eastern Europe. [citation needed] There also developed a growing urban proletariat and an increasingly influential Latvian bourgeoisie. Of these, 42% are raised bogs; 49% are fens; and 9% are transitional mires. [204], Between the 13th and 19th centuries, Baltic Germans, many of whom were originally of non-German ancestry but had been assimilated into German culture, formed the upper class. Heavy snowfall or even snowstorms are also possible on some days; the yearly average number of days with snow is about days. [68] This operation had the desired effect of reducing the anti Soviet partisan activity. This led to the development of the Amber Road. The summer season is usually dry with occasional rainstorms. [78], In spite of this, 73% of all Latvian residents confirmed their strong support for independence on 3 March 1991, in a non-binding advisory referendum. On 5 October 1939, Latvia was forced to accept a "mutual assistance" pact with the Soviet Union, granting the Soviets the right to station between 25,000 and 30,000 troops on Latvian territory. [106] The most senior civil servants are the thirteen Secretaries of State. [104], Several nature reserves protect unspoiled landscapes with a variety of large animals. [citation needed], Worth mentioning is the fact that numeracy was also higher in the Livonian and Courlandian parts of the Russian Empire, which may have been influenced by the Protestant religion of the inhabitants. Latvia's highest point is Gaiziņkalns, 311.6 m (1,022 ft). [42], In the 17th and early 18th centuries, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Sweden, and Russia struggled for supremacy in the eastern Baltic. [129], More than 56% of leading positions are held by women in Latvia, which ranks 1st in Europe; Latvia ranks 1st in the world in women's rights sharing the position with five other European countries according to World Bank. Latvia is a member of the European Union, Eurozone, NATO, the Council of Europe, the United Nations, CBSS, the IMF, NB8, NIB, OECD, OSCE, and WTO. [citation needed] They developed distinct cultural heritage, characterised by both Latvian and German influences. The average sea temperature around Riga, Latvia in December is 1°C. Dec. Latvia's railway network is currently incompatible with European standard gauge lines. In the month of december, the mean temperature in Riga is 36°F (maximum temperature is 38°F and minimum temperature is 32°F). More than 1.2 million texts and 30,000 melodies of folk songs have been identified. The best time to visit Latvia is from may until september, when you will have a soft or pleasant temperature and limited rainfall.The highest average temperature in Latvia is 23°C in july and the lowest is -2°C in january. Precipitation: 1.27". It has a temperate climate that sees warm summers and cold winters. Sep 'The publication, which followed two decades of public debate and the passage of a special law, revealed the names, code names, birthplaces and other data on active and former KGB agents as of 1991, the year Latvia regained its independence from the Soviet Union. Feb [29] It performs favorably in measurements of civil liberties, press freedom, internet freedom, democratic governance, living standards, and peacefulness. The growth momentum has continued into 2012 and 2013 despite deteriorating external conditions, and the economy is expected to expand by 4.1 percent in 2014. The national account deficit for 2007, for example, represented more than 22% of the GDP for the year while inflation was running at 10%. [199] It is among the lowest-ranked healthcare systems in Europe, due to excessive waiting times for treatment, insufficient access to the latest medicines, and other factors. Snowfall is common in the winter months. [56]:64[56]:56, Under German occupation, Latvia was administered as part of Reichskommissariat Ostland. Popular discontent exploded in the 1905 Russian Revolution, which took a nationalist character in the Baltic provinces. Daytime temperatures usually reach 0°C in Riga, Latvia in December, falling to -5°C at night. Summers are usually warm and sunny, with cool evenings and nights. [168] Latvia's current account, which had been in deficit by 27% in late 2006 was in surplus in February 2010. Weather in February » There are 37 foreign embassies and 11 international organisations in Latvia's capital Riga. Weather News Maps Jurmala. 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